Which Techniques and Detectors Are Used to Measure and Develop Ultra Light Energy (under 1 EV)?

Axion Dark Matter Experiment - WikipediaIt uses a resonant microwave cavity within a large superconducting magnet to search for cold dark matter axions in the local galactic dark matter halo. Pierre Sikivie invented the axion haloscope in 1983WIMPs, Axions,... are not particles because they have never been detected. They are 'Particles on paper' From the link: "its gravitational interactions with familiar matter leave unmistakable evidence for its existence" ... "Approximately five times more abundant than ordinary matter,..." Unmistakable evidence : Not so fast... theoretical physicists had no imagination to find a correct model of galactodynamics until now. The so called 'Dark matter' is an invented parameter to make the model fit the data. It is not would ata', it is nothing. Decades looking for 'nothing' is consistent with the results: 'nothing'. Two facts should make everyone to look for an anternative explanation of galactodynamics: The disk galaxies are lopsided but 'central forces' are symetric . The disk galaxies have a vortex like force field. This is evident when one compares its shape, i.e. the force field, with the ones of the hurricanes and vortexes have not a central force origin.

1. What is a measure of the light energy that hits one square meter in one second?

You mean the energy flux. that's the amount of watts of energy emitted by a star per one square meter. its calculated by sigma x T^4 sigma- Stefan Boltzmann constant 5.67 x 10^-8 T- temperature of the star in Kelvin.

2. What is the relationship between matrices and the speed of light and energy?

There's a huge mystery in our universe, namely, how and why does light travel across the universe at such an exact speed, so that light emitted from a distant supernova burst reaches us at the exact same moment. The same thing is observed for gravity waves too. What causes this? If we say, with Einstein, that there is "no such thing as the ether", it still leaves us without an explanation for the constant, extremely precise speed of light. Some kind of quantum timing or distance-measuring process must be taking place; there is no other way around this conclusion. If we say, with Einstein, that the event at a distant star is defined as "simultaneous" with our time, and that we are on an equal plane with that star, defined by the light wave, it still remains to explain why this happens. The same is observed with quantum phenomena: an uncanny equalization and communication process is taking place in some underlying realm. Here we see a similarity between gravity and quantum phenomena.Then what do we mean by a matrix? "Matrix" has two meanings: (1) a mathematical structure, rectangular in nature, correlating two objects, two entities, two properties or a whole set of them. A number of quantum phenomena are solved by a matrix set. But it still requires a vast number of computations. These apparently are performed instantly and precisely in nature. The second meaning of "matrix" (2) is a substrate or medium within which physical events take place. In the case of light passing through space, we have the same case. The "matrix" in this case is the space-time metric, or physical vacuum.The curious measuring or clocking problem arises again in this manner: We can picture a unit Planck distance, precisely defined and fixed, which the light wave or photon traverses. That is fine if it is going straight across the parallel lines of the matrix. But what if it crosses at an angle? Then we have a more complicated calculation. Would we suppose such a calculation is being performed by nature every instant as the light wave passes 10 billion light-years of space-time?Realistically, such a proposition is unthinkable. So we remain totally without an explanation as to how this precise timing and distance-measuring takes place. Perhaps Einstein said the best thing by stating, "There is no ether. The light universally travels at exactly the speed of light" and he left it at that. If we speak of the "matrix" in the (2) sense, this space-time matrix, which is the physical vacuum, is imbued with very high intrinsic energy, which can on occasion show up in various ways. One of these is the so-called "dark energy" issue.In the case of (1), the matrix connecting particles or cosmic strings one to another, there is an energy assignment or calculation for each pairing. In the case of light (electromagnetic) waves, the frequency and energy are directly proportional to each other. Higher frequency has a higher energy. If the speed of light is artificially retarded by passing through optical material, then the frequency is maintained as constant, while the wavelength is shortened because of the speed of light being reduced. This causes differential refraction (e.g. through a prism).Basically problems in space-time with gravitation and relativity as well as quantum physics problems of particle interactions can both be solved either by field equations or by matrices.

3. Describe the relationship between the wavelengths of the light and the energy that each wavelength represents.?

The energy (E) of a photon of light is directly proportional to its frequency (f) by the relation E = hf, where h is Planck's constant, 6.625 * 10**-34 joule-second. The wavelength (w) is inversely proportional to the frequency (f) by: f = c/w, where c is the speed of light, 2.9979 * 10**8 meters per second, or about 300 million meters per second. So the energy is inversely proportional to the wavelength by the relation: E = hc/w and since h and c are constants, the product hc is constant being about 19.87 * 10**-26 joule-meters (or 1.987 * 10**-25 joule-meters). This means if you know the wavelength of the light you can find its energy in joules by dividing 19.87 * 10**-26 joule-meters by the wavelength in meters. Hope this answers your question!

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Low-Energy Intense Pulsed Light for Hair Removal at HomeLow-energy intense pulsed light for hair removal at home was evaluated in this clinical trial. Twenty-two female patients were enrolled into an institutional review board-approved clinical trial. Patients received six biweekly treatments with the device, and clinical results with hair counts and pictures were performed at four weeks and three months following the last treatment. Source: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2921762/Guidelines on the Safety of Light-based Home-use Hair Removal Devices From the European Society for Laser DermatologyIn the past 5 years since their US introduction, there has been a rapid proliferation of light-based hair removal devices intended for home-use. In the last 2 years in Europe, sales already run into many tens of thousands of units with well-known multi-national companies entering the market. 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This heats up and damages the surrounding tissue.Source: com/thinking-of-laser-hair-removal-heres-what-you-need-to-know-113561Hair Removal Statistics Share of Men and WomenThis statistic shows the share of men and women aged 16 years and older, who removed their body hair in Great Britain in 2016. Of female respondents, 89 percent reported removing their body hair.Source: ·RELATED QUESTIONHow to determine the amount of light energy (photons) being released from an incandescent light bulb?The title of this question refers to the emission of light from an incandescent light bulb, and then the body of the question asks for Planck-scale details of the physics happening there. Well, that would be a lot of work to answer. Suppose it's a tungsten filament. Then there's a molecular lattice of tungsten atoms, i.e. a lattice of nuclei surrounded by electron shells embedded in a "Fermi liquid" of conducting electrons. The nuclei are spinning balls of protons and neutrons exchanging pions; the protons, neutrons and pions are all made of quarks and gluons. The electrons in the shells are electromagnetically attracted to the protons in the nuclei. The conducting electrons are also attracted, but their wavefunctions are spread out in space, throughout the tungsten wire. As John Rennie's comment points out, the emission of photons from an incandescent light bulb comes from these spread-out conducting electrons, not from the localized electrons in the electron shells. Emission of photons from electrons associated with a single atom, is more characteristic of a gas, where the atoms are floating free. But there is a sub-question about how the quarks in the nucleus respond to the electron emitting a photon, and that's easier to answer in the case of a free atom. Basically, there is no effect, but I should be able to explain why. The effect on an atom, when one of its electrons emits a photon, might be vaguely like what would happen, if you had a balloon with some marbles inside it, and then you tapped on the balloon. The balloon would move away, but it would wobble and the marbles would rattle against each other. Here the balloon is the wavefunction of the electron which emits the photon, the tap on the balloon is the impulse that the electron experiences in the opposite direction to the photon, and the marbles are the wavefunctions of the quarks, or even of the protons and neutrons. I think the main thing to understand is that when the photon is emitted, conservation of momentum means that the electron, and then the whole atom, will start moving in the opposite direction, but very very slowly. If you think of the balloon again, and suppose it was floating there but with a fly resting on it, and then the fly took off. The balloon would start moving away in the opposite direction to the fly, but very very slowly. The whole atom would move back from the emission of the photon, but only slowly, and the effect in the nucleus is indirect, like the rattling of the marbles in the balloon. So the recoil on the atom is almost zero, and it will be completely drowned out if there are other forces acting on the atom, e.g. if the atom is bonded to other atoms and the whole structure is vibrating with heat. Returning to the general topic of the subatomic physics of incandescence, or the subatomic physics of anything, the main challenge for any questioner is going to be, understanding what wavefunctions are. It's a wave, that can be spread out in space, or concentrated around one point, which gives the probability for the particle being there. If the "wave" is high in some region, then the probability is high that the particle is in there; but there is also a probability that it is somewhere out in the much larger region where the wave is low. The way these waves behave has a lot in common with the older ideas of particles experiencing forces, e.g. the old idea of an electron orbiting the nucleus like a planet orbiting a star. The waves in the electron's wavefunction do travel from place to place; but they can also be in an equilibrium configuration, just pulsing on the spot; the energy levels for electrons in an atom are like this. The big question is, what is actually there? Are the waves real; or is the reality a particle moving around, and the math of waves is just because we don't know where it is; or maybe the reality is some third option? I'm sorry to say that you won't get very sensible answers to this question from physicists. You will get different answers from different physicists, including excuses for not having a proper answer. This picture of probability waves for particles is about as far as physics has progressed. It provides enough logic and visualization, that many many things can be understood, and predicted with amazing detail. For example, it's a framework capable of describing and explaining incandescent light sources, in terms of what the atoms are doing. But if you want something deeper and more logical than probability waves, you'll just have to wait for the next big leap in physics
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