What Caused the Fall of the Ottoman Empire

Corruption: After 16th centruy Ottoman aristocracy and clergy rapidly began degenerate. At the middle 17th century, favoritism, curroption and malpractice were very common in the Ottoman Govermental Bodies.Out Dated Economic Sytem: Ottoman economy depended on transit good taxes, handicraft export and agriculture export and taxes. Geographical discoveries hit a giant blow to transit goods, 17th century revolts in Anatolia destroyed the tmar system (a kind of manorial system) and reduced the agriculture incomes and industrial revolution lowered the demand of handicrafts. Plus long wars with Austria and Russia placed a big burden on treasury.Very Delayed Reforms: Ottoman Empire attempted to reform itself but nearly always faced opposition from its own clergy and aristocracy who believed that the reforms could demolish their interests. Corrupt Clergy and Aristocracy members always provoked the public and forced the reformist sultans to abdicate. First succesful reform attempt made by Sultan II.Mahmud (1808) and public called him Infidel for his reforms although he was a very religious person. Sultans came after him continued the refoms until the Empires collapse but reforms are happened late at least one century.French Revolition and Rise of Nationalist Movements: Ottoman Empire has many minorities in itself. In 19th century, Balkan nations began the revolt against the empire and takeback their lands slowly but steadily. This revolts opened the Empire attack of the Europen Powers.Cultural and Religious Pressures: After 16th century, Majority of the Turks began to more Conservative and a corrupt clergy arised. This clergy members used religion to mislead people for their own interests. They retained society to be enlighten for easy manipulation. This was resulted with scientific lag.I hope this will help

• Other Questions

What are the contradictions in Saudi Arabia?

Saudi Arabia and Arab countries at large apart from oil are also known for having a regressive Islamic system, something which is aimed at creating a puritanical Islamic society. There are strict laws and they are strictly followed, many of them can sound bizarre by the modern society standards. For instance, in Saudi ArabiaAs a women you cant ride, cant step out of the house without abaya or a guardian.

Men and women are equally not allowed to mingle publicly or even privately if they are not related.Cinema is bannedThere is a moral police that goes around arresting people that it deems blasphemous.Drinking is prohibitedAnyway, these countries are unapologetically theocratic and they have these rigid system in place to preserve and nurture a truly Islamic society. Apart from minor protests by defectors here and there, vast majority of Arabs including women like to see their country driven by strict Islamic values. Since they prefer living in a pure Islamic land over everything else, they are comfortable making minor sacrifices like giving up booze, women, partying, drugs, gambling and all the similar vices that Quran prohibits except that they are not.Inside the Secret World of Arab PlayboysEverybody is aware of the rich Arab royalties spending bombs on women, booze, party in their sojourn in Europe. Even women are seen flaunting a casual appearance and indulging in activities that otherwise normal could invite them serious repercussions even death penalty in their home country. Yet, when they go back to their country they are back to the same old avatar and things are normal again. The vices are okay if they happen outside, the house should be clean.

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What are some of the similarities and differences between Adam Smith's and Karl Marx's economic theories?

Marx believed in the labor theory of value. The value of a good is strictly determined by the amount of labor that produced the good. Smith considered that idea and concluded it was only valid early in history when only small amounts of land had been tamed and capital had been constructed. More generally, Smith hypothesized there is a natural wage, a natural rent, and a natural return to capital in every locality. In the long run, the value of a good is determined by the resources needed to produce it, valued at their natural rate. This is the natural price of the good. In the short run, however, prices are determined by supply and demand. Over time, assuming there is perfect competition, resources will be moved around so the supply and demand price of everything equals its natural price. But many forces can interfere with competition, especially the government. He advised that we ought to remove those barriers to competition. The government should focus on its essential responsibilities and leave the economy to itself as long as there is sufficient competition.Marx, on the other hand, believed capitalists and landlords are superfluous. Markets are all part of an elaborate con job that tricks workers into selling their labor at a discount, allowing capitalists to profit. Eventually, workers will figure that out and rise up against their overlords.Smith and Marx agreed that capitalists act against the interests of workers, but they disagreed about how. Smith considered capitalists to be an integral part of the economy, but they should not be trusted in the writing of laws that impact the economy. Their interests are not the same as everybody else's. He did not expect any revolutions, just more evolution

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What is the difference between a social democracy and socialism, but more importantly, why should I care?

What is the difference between a social democracy and socialism, but more importantly, why should I care?Socialism means that the means of production are owned and controlled by the state. It means that commissions decide what should be produced and not supply and demand. It therefore is too unflexible and failed more or less catastrophically every time it was tried. It also so far was always coupled with some form of dictatorship and consequently poor civil rights. It can reasonably be seen as bad.Social democracy on the other hand is based on capitalism. Production is based on supply and demand. Civil rights are extremely important in social democracies. Also, resources are redistributed from the rich and corporations to the general public to pay for welfare, infrastructure, education, health care and everything else we need to lead a fulfilled life. It can reasonable be seen as good.You should know the difference because there are people who want to sell you social democracy as socialism and with that as bad. Why? you ask? The answer to that question lies in the resources are redistributed from the rich and corporations to the general public part. A lot of rich people and corporations dont care about the general public but only about their own profit. They dont want any resources to be redistributed. The consequence is poor welfare, poor infrastructure, poor education, poor health care and so on which you and your children also will suffer from. Therefore its in your personal interest to be able to tell if something really is socialism or only social democracy.Whenever someone is trying to sell social democracy as socialism, they are trying to scam you. They are trying to cheat you out of a fulfilled life to enrich themselves. I wouldnt have that if I were you

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Why is there still no decent alternative to the Windows OS?

This is quite simply wrong - there are dozens of better alternatives - but perhaps we owe Microsoft a debt of gratitude. Microsoft built their company around MS Dos. Windows was only a knee-jerk response to the GUI on the original Apple Macintosh. It wasnt the best OS from day one and it is even less so now.This gives us a lesson in US monopolistic practices. Microsoft used its size and clout to make itself the only option. Not just for OS either - PC users were persuaded to take on the entire Office suite - Word, Excel, Powerpoint and, for companies, even Access (one of the worst databases ever). Computer manufacturers were strongarmed into installing Windows by default, along with dodgy anti-malware software (Norton and McAfee) and companies were just billed.Fortunately, this led to a backlash and the start of the whole Copyleft and FOSS movements. Similar tactics in the browser market against Netscape led to the free and relatively open internet we have currently.But it also led to the startup idea that building a monopoly s the right way to go and this has been at the heart of US company building since. The idea that competition improves the breed has been ditched in favour of oligopolies and the false competition of cartels. IBM, Oracle etc. in the 90s through to Uber, Tesla and SpaceX today. It does seem to be an effective strategy, and highly profitable for its backers.But it isnt the only option. Google, Apple, Samsung and even Huawei are testamount to that. But while the corporations play their monopolistic games, the vast majority of us are using an OS which is 50% faster, a lot more secure and has vastly more software and interoperability options. Linux

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Do you hate James Potter? Why?

Yes. Try to imagine this hypothetical situation: you are a rejected and humiliated nerd, everyone ridicules you, but you have the friendship of the girl you have been in love with since childhood. You feel very good and happy with that person. Then, someday, an asshole appears and, instead of being nice and trying to help you, he becomes a bully and humiliates you even more, teasing you at every opportunity. Even worse: this same bully is handsome, charismatic, intelligent, popular, good at the sports,... he is the dream of all girls. One of his hobbies is humiliating you in order to amuse the audience, becoming even more popular while you are most despised. You really hate this guy and at the same time, you want to be like him: popular and loved. Not enough, he still takes away the only and the best thing you have: the girl you have been dreaming about since you met. Okay: you rushed in, you made a mistake with the girl, you said something extremely offensive, you lost her friendship, ... but you trully regretted it and, even so, you were not forgiven. And who won the chance that you missed? Exactly: your bully. Now, not only do you suffer from platonic and unrequited love (which in itself hurts a lot), but you also have to watch from the distance the person you love falling in love with the person you hate the most and who made your life a hell. Worse, the two got married and have a child, which means it's too late to turn it around. And she never forgave you, which makes you hated by the person you love the most. Now, do you understand how Snape felt? That's what James did to him. James Potter was a trash, that's why I hate him and like Snape.

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Is the Traditional Energy-saving Lamp Regulator Used for LED Circuit? Detailed Analysis of 11 Defect
Can the controller of traditional energy-saving lamp act on LED circuit?There are many options for buying LED bulbs, but compatible led dimmers are difficult to choose. Many users will confidently say that it is OK to use the dimmer of traditional incandescent lamps. Now the most commonly seen on the market is thyristor dimmer, which is divided into DC and ac. it is very easy to use in incandescent lamps.After selecting the LED lamp with appropriate color temperature, lumen grade and beam angle, the dimming requirements are met. Different from the random dimming method of ordinary incandescent lamps, dimming LED bulbs with thyristors may be successful, but many problems will occur in most cases.Four conditions:The most common problem is that there is a buzzing beep or a strong stroboscopic. Ordinary incandescent lamps only need to adjust the voltage to adjust the light and shade, but it may not work for LED lamps. We have done experiments and the following four situations have occurred:1. It can't be opened at all. It doesn't light up at all!2. It can only be on at 100% illumination.3. It can work normally, but the buzzing sound is very loud.4. Stroboscopic occurs when it is adjusted to a certain brightness.Dimming principle:During the test, sometimes the LED can be used normally after it is dimmed to a certain limit. We judge that the reason why it doesn't light up is that the applied voltage of the dimmer is too small to reach the required voltage.The internal circuit of LED is much more complex than that of incandescent lamp. The real led dimmer is not only regulating voltage, but also has three principles:1. Wave width control dimming: digitize the square wave of the power supply and control the duty cycle of the square wave, so as to control the current.2. Constant current power supply regulation: the current can be easily adjusted by analog linear technology.3. Grouping control: group multiple LEDs and control them with a simple grouping device.Note the strobe:The reasons for the most stroboscopic cases are as follows: the adjustable resistor itself is not a very reliable component. Often, due to the entry of dust or the lax manufacturing process, there will be an instant jump fault when operating the adjustable resistor, and the light source will flash. Therefore, we need high-quality adjustable resistance, or use linear technology to regulate current rather than voltage.In fact, the internal driving function of LED itself can easily adjust the brightness and darkness, but most LED manufacturers remove this function to save costs. Whether the LED lamp can be dimmed is usually marked on the box. If there is no mark on the box, please use the dimming function with caution or use a special LED dimmer.Dimming will reduce life:A reminder is that dimming can easily reduce the life of the bulb. Why? Simply take a dimming method: we divide one second into 1000 parts, each part is 1 millisecond, and then make the LED light work for 7 milliseconds and turn off for 3 milliseconds through the control chip. In this way, it only works for 0.7 seconds in one second. However, due to the fast flashing interval, we can't feel its brightness flickering with our naked eyes, and we will only feel that its brightness has darkened, which is 0.7 times the original, This achieves the effect of dimming. Similarly, we can achieve 50% brightness, 32% brightness and any brightness. Blink in this way, it's strange not to break early!In order to avoid various problems, try not to use the physical dimming method for the smart bulb. Take out the mobile phone and open the app to adjust the light and shade.In fact, I still like to use the way of grouping device to control the brightness, which is simple, safe and easy to use. It can be easily done by touching the key switch or independent grouping switch. It is not necessary to fine tune the brightness from 0 to 100% perfectly in the home. It is OK to realize several levels of brightness adjustment, which can fully meet the needs.Analysis and retrieval of 11 disadvantages of LED wick:Compared with traditional incandescent lamps, led filament lamps have higher requirements for packaging. It is reported that at present, led filament lamps have very strict requirements for filament working voltage design, filament working current design, LED chip area and power, LED chip luminous angle, pin design, glass bulb sealing technology, etc. it can be seen that the manufacturing process of LED filament lamps is very complex, and there are certain requirements for the financial strength, supporting facilities and technology of manufacturers.In the production process, due to different processes, the requirements for materials are also different. In addition, in production, many equipment need to be transformed according to the performance characteristics of LED filament lamps, which also makes the manufacturers of relevant materials of LED filament lamps miserable. The defects in the bulb material also make the LED filament lamp easy to be damaged during transportation. The complex process and low yield make the LED filament lamp unable to obtain high praise from manufacturers and consumers.1. Difficult process, poor heat dissipation and easy damageAlthough led filament lamps have attracted much attention in the domestic market in the past two years, at present, the problems existing in the production of LED filament lamps can not be ignored: the manufacturing process is difficult, several different processes need to be integrated, and the yield is low; More than 8W led filament lamps are prone to heat dissipation problems; It is easy to be broken and damaged in the process of production and use.2. Structure, performance and price to be improvedDue to the relatively late entry of LED filament lamps into the market, the market-related sharp bubbles, tail bubbles and spherical bulbs are mainly "patch type". In addition, the filament lamps that entered the market in the early stage are far from consumers' expectations in terms of structure, performance and price, which makes consumers have some misunderstandings about led filament lamps. With the breakthrough of key technologies, the maturity of packaging technology and the improvement of bubble sealing technology, the luminous efficiency, finger display, service life and cost of LED filament lamps will be improved to a certain extent.At present, the LED filament lamp needs to be improved in too many places. It is like a newborn "premature baby". It is not very mature in all aspects, with high cost, complex production process and low production capacity. Therefore, we should improve the raw materials, led beads and manufacturing process in the future, so as to improve the production capacity of LED filament lamps, reduce losses and improve delivery efficiency.3. Low power and poor heat dissipation are obstaclesAffected by the production process, there are many problems in LED filament lamps, such as high cost and high damage rate during transportation due to the defects of bulb material. In addition, the heat dissipation of high wattage led filament lamps has also become an obstacle for LED filament lamps to enter ordinary people's homes.Problem 2: high priceAccording to the market survey, the average retail price of a 3W led filament lamp is about 28-30 yuan, which is much higher than that of LED bulb lamps and other lighting products with the same power, and several times higher than that of LED incandescent lamps with the same power. Therefore, many consumers are scared away by the price of LED filament lamps.At this stage, the market share of LED filament lamps is less than 10%. Nowadays, as a characteristic product, led filament lamp restores the luminous feeling of traditional tungsten filament lamp and is loved by many consumers. However, the high cost, low light efficiency and small application range of LED filament lamps are also the problems that lighting manufacturers must face and look directly at in the next stage.1. Supporting materials increase product costThe market prospect of LED filament lamp is very bright, but there are difficulties in the promotion of LED filament lamp at this stage, mainly due to its high cost and the lack of large wattage, which makes the application of LED filament lamp limited to the flower lamp market. In addition, the matching of raw materials also increases the cost, because there is no standard in the specification and shape of filament lamp, and its market volume is small, As a result, the supporting materials are basically customized, and the manufacturing cost remains high.2. The cost of LED filament is too highAmong all parts of LED filament lamp, the highest cost is led filament, mainly because of its complex production process and high cutting cost; The production efficiency is not high and the degree of automation is low, resulting in the cost. At present, the cost of 3-6w filament bulb can be controlled below 15 yuan, of which the cost of LED filament accounts for more than half.3. The packaging of LED filament lamp is exquisiteThe packaging of LED filament lamps is more exquisite. The light effects encapsulated by each enterprise are different. Led filament lamps still have certain limitations in power and heat dissipation, resulting in higher prices than ordinary LED light sources.Problem 3: small marketAt this stage, the power of the best-selling led filament lamp in the market is basically less than 10W, which shows that at this stage, the LED filament lamp is technically trapped in the problem of heat dissipation and can not achieve high power. It also shows that it can only cover a small section of the whole lighting product line and can not be widely promoted. Even if it plays the "nostalgic" brand, the LED filament lamp market is only a small market, It can't become the mainstream for the time being.1. Low consumer acceptanceWith the shrinking incandescent lamp and energy-saving lamp market, LED lighting products are slowly recognized by end consumers. However, at present, the market of LED filament lamps is still very limited. Due to the limited application and power of LED filament lamps, the acceptance of LED filament lamps by end consumers is not very high.In addition, consumers do not know enough about led filament lamps. Many people think it is just an improvement of ordinary incandescent lamps.2. The main demand comes from the projectAs LED filament lamps are mainly used in flower lamps, and their main demand comes from engineering lighting, general dealers will not mainly promote LED filament lamps. Even if a few businesses sell LED filament lamps, they won't have too much inventory.Problem 4: difficult to promoteEntering the terminal market, we can find that the LED filament lamp is not as hot as expected for two reasons:1、 Many stores do not promote filament lamps as key products, and consumers' awareness and acceptance of filament lamps are not high;2、 Compared with LED light source products such as bulb and sharp bulb, led filament lamp products have no qualitative change. On the contrary, the price is relatively high and it is difficult to go. Let alone replace the market position of LED bulb, energy-saving lamp and other products.Therefore, at present, the market advantage of LED filament lamp is not very obvious, and the market is basically waiting and trying.At present, the difficulty of pushing led filament lamps in the terminal market lies in:1、 Poor integration between traditional bubble sealing industry and LED packaging industry (concept and process integration);2、 It is not easy to reverse the concept of end consumers;3、 The acceptance of LED filament lamp products by society and government is not clear. In addition, the price of LED filament lamp is high, and consumers have not really distinguished the difference between LED filament lamp and incandescent lamp, which leads to the difficulty of LED filament lamp market promotion.1. Merchants are not active in promotionAt present, if led filament lamps want to achieve good performance in the market, they also need to strengthen publicity and innovation. The development of LED industry is increasingly fierce, and industry standards have been issued one after another, which has exacerbated the market development resistance of LED filament lamps. Especially at this stage, many consumers do not understand led filament lamps, and merchants are not active enough in promoting led filament lamps. Even most merchants are not very optimistic about their development prospects. In actual sales, customers usually see or ask, Businesses will push this product.2. High price makes promotion difficultAt present, it is difficult to promote LED filament lamps in the market. Because consumers do not know much about led filament lamps, the probability of purchase is very small. In addition, due to the impact of e-commerce, the transaction rate of LED in physical stores is lower. Some consumers pay more attention to the price when purchasing products. Therefore, there is still a long way to go for LED filament lamps to enter the families of ordinary consumers.3. Lack of new selling points of LED filament lampsAt present, led filament lamp is in the primary stage of promotion, and very few people know its advantages because of the appearance and original quality of the product
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