Unique Exhibition of Roman-era Painting in Rome

ROME (Reuters Life!) - How did ancient Roman nobles relax when they returned to their homes at night after a hard day's politicking at the Senate or the Forum?

In part by looking at the frescos on the walls of their sumptuous homes - the "patrician domus" in the capital of the empire or in cities such as Pompeii and Herculaneum.

"The rich Romans liked to create a world of dreams in their homes," said Eugenio La Rocca, curator of a new exhibition "Rome - Paintings of an Empire."

In the past, art lovers would have to travel to numerous museums in Italy and abroad to see the frescoes - Naples, Pompeii, Rome, Sicily, the Vatican, the Louvre, the British Museum, Berlin's Staatliche and Moscow's Puskin.

But this exhibition offers a one-stop drooling spree for lovers of Roman-era painting.

"This is not an exhibition of archaeology. It's an exhibition of paintings," said La Rocca, as he guided visitors around the exhibition in a building that once housed the horses and carriages of the popes and kings of Italy.

The exhibition includes 100 stunning pieces, most of them frescoes from patrician Roman villas that were discovered in the Rome and Naples areas from the 17th century onwards.

It gives a glimpse into how the Roman nobles decorated their homes with a mix of portraits, snippets of every-day life and scenes from mythology.

Ulysses and the Sirens, from the mid first century A.D. and cut from the wall of a Roman house in the 19th century, shows Ulysses (Odysseus) and his crew steering their ship along a rocky coastline past the lair of the sirens.

There are pastoral scenes of poor farmers and plebeian tradesmen blended with classical buildings that the rich Romans or Pompeians would have passed every day.

"This marks the first time these pieces have been put side by side," said La Rocca.

The exhibition cost 2.2 million euros ($3.24 million) and covers the four major styles of Roman painting covering three centuries.

The halls of the exhibition are dim and each of the works has an individually designed back and front lighting system. Some of the piece are so large that the viewer has a feeling that he might just be a guest in the Roman house.

"The rich ancient Romans wanted to live in houses that seemed like the houses of the Gods of Olympus," La Rocca said "And they wanted to relax in a dream-like atmosphere of satyrs and nymphs."

One large wall panel contains tiny figures evoking everyday life painted in white on a black background.

The panel, taken from the Villa della Farnesina, a lush house of the late Roman republican period that was discovered in 1879 along the banks of the Tiber and believed to have been the home of Giulia, daughter of the emperor Augustus.

The lighting on the panel aims to reconstruct the effect that flickering candlelight would have had 2,000 years ago, leaving the hosts or guests of the house with the impression that the tiny figures were walking or the tiny ships sailing.

Despite its weight, the panel seems to be floating.

The exhibition also aims to show how Roman painting was the successor of Greek painting and how it went on to influence Byzantine, Mediaeval, and modern European painting.

The exhibition at the Scuderie del Quirinale (www.scuderiequirinale.it) is open until January 17.

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The Future of Roadway Lighting: Researchers Studying the Role of Illumination in Traffic Safety Make
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] Roadway lighting offers significant safety benefits but alsorepresents a substantial share of the operating budgets of agenciestasked with maintaining the lighting infrastructure. Standard practicerequires that roadway lighting systems, when installed, provideillumination for the maximum vehicle and pedestrian volume, regardlessof roadway conditions or real-time roadway usage. Typical practice alsorequires maintaining a single, specific lighting level over time, whichis difficult to do, because as a light source is used, it diminishes inoutput due to aging of the source and dirt that accumulates on the lens.To overcome the expected reduction in output, engineers tend toovercompensate in the initial lighting design by specifying the use ofmore intense luminaires to reach the correct lighting level. These traditional approaches to lighting design result insignificant over-lighting of roadways and excessive energy usage.Adaptive lighting, that is, adjusting illumination levels based on theneeds of roadway users, offers an approach to overcome these challenges. Driven by the development of new lighting technologies and anationwide push to reduce energy use and environmental impacts, adaptivelighting is a growing trend in the roadway industry. It entails the useof a design methodology in which the light output of a system adjusts astraffic conditions change. More specifically, the level of lighting canbe reduced or dimmed when traffic on highways or sidewalks lessens.Here's a look at how adaptive lighting may be implemented whilemaintaining the safety of road users and how two agencies are deployingthis technology on their roadways. Implementing Adaptive Lighting Although transportation agencies have begun to introduce adaptivelighting into their roadway projects, the techniques for doing so haveyet to be standardized. In 2011, the Federal HighwayAdministration's Office of Safety Research and Development launchedthe Strategic Initiative for the Evaluation of Reduced Lighting onRoadways to investigate the issues associated with the application ofadaptive lighting to the roadway environment and to develop recommendedpractices for implementing those systems. In July 2014, the FHWA Office of Safety Research and Developmentreleased a report titled Design Criteria for Adaptive Roadway Lighting(FHWA-HRT-14-051). This report describes an indepth effort to assess theeffect of adaptive lighting on the overall safety performance ofroadways. Researchers working with FHWA conducted studies to determineoptimal times, conditions, and suitable approaches for reducinglighting; appropriate lighting levels for various roads and features;energy savings and reductions in greenhouse gases resulting from reducedlighting; and potential legal issues. The resulting design methodology provides a process thattransportation agencies can use to determine whether adaptive lightingis appropriate for a given roadway. The researchers proposed a set ofcriteria to assist jurisdictions in making sound, safety-based decisionswhen considering adaptive lighting approaches. In addition, thestudy's evaluation of real-world lighting data can serve as thefoundation for future analyses related to roadway lighting. Roadway Light, Visibility, and Safety For part of the research resulting in the 2014 report, the FHWAOffice of Safety Research and Development partnered with the VirginiaTech Transportation Institute to investigate how lighting levels affectsafety on the road, and to develop an approach for selecting appropriatelighting levels for various roads and features. Previous research hadshown that roadway lighting can affect crash risk. For this study, theresearchers analyzed the relationship between lighting levels andquality and crash rates. Establishing such a relationship can helpagencies determine the optimal lighting level for roadways under varioustraffic conditions. Four criteria to consider in the design of roadway lighting arehorizontal and vertical illuminance, luminance, and uniformity.Horizontal roadway illuminance is the amount of light falling on theroadway surface. Vertical illuminance is the amount of light falling ona vertical surface, such as a pedestrian. Luminance is the amount oflight perceived by the road user, and uniformity is the ratio ofilluminance or luminance values, such as maximum to average, average tominimum, or maximum to minimum. Researchers used detectors mounted on top of a vehicle to collectdata to measure each of these criteria on thousands of miles of roadwayin seven States (California, Delaware, Minnesota, North Carolina,Vermont, Virginia, and Washington). After taking measurements, theresearchers compared the varying lighting levels, roadwaycharacteristics, and traffic volumes with night-to-day crash rate ratioson segments of road. This ratio reflects the relative magnitude ofnighttime crash risk compared with daytime crash risk. Because daytime and nighttime crashes shared the same road designfeatures and traffic control features, the crash rate ratio directlyreflects the factors that only differ by day and night, with visibilitylevel being the primary one. Therefore, the night-to-day crash rateratio indicates the effect of lighting and light levels whilecontrolling for the effects of roadway design, traffic control features,and other roadway characteristics. The researchers considered thenight-to-day crash rate ratio to be the primary metric in evaluating theeffect of roadway lighting on safety. (Note that weather conditions werenot included in this analysis and therefore represent a basis for futureresearch.) The researchers analyzed more than 88,000 crashes that had occurredfrom 2004 to 2010. Of those, more than 64,000 crashes had occurredduring the day, while nearly 24,000 had occurred at night. The NationalOceanic and Atmospheric Administration's recorded sunrise andsunset times were used to classify the natural lighting into daytime andnighttime conditions. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] Horizontal Illuminance Next, the researchers analyzed roadway horizontal illuminance, orthe amount of light falling on the roadway surface, as one of fourroadway lighting criteria in the study. They calculated the relationshipbetween the horizontal illuminance of roadway segments and thenight-to-day crash rate ratio of those segments. The results of their analysis show a significant decrease in thenight-to-day crash rate ratio with an increase of average horizontallighting levels, which are measured in foot-candles, or lux. In thestudy, the night-to-day crash rate ratios for lighting levels 0 and 0.1foot-candle (0 and 1 lux) are significantly higher than for otherlevels. However, there is no statistically significant difference forlighting levels from 0.19 to 0.65 foot-candle (2 to 7 lux), and anincrease in the lighting level from 0.46 foot-candle (5 lux) to higherlevels did not appear to affect the crash rate ratio. There appears tobe a further reduction in the crash rate at approximately 1.49foot-candles (16 lux); however, because data on only 28 miles (45kilometers) of roadway are represented in this category, the result isnot statistically significant. These findings indicate that althoughlighting will benefit road safety, increasing the lighting level doesnot necessarily always lead to a safer road. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] Maintaining Roadway Safety With Less Light After conducting similar analyses for each of the other lightingmetrics, the researchers concluded that the possibility exists forreducing standard lighting levels on roadways during periods of lesstraffic while maintaining the overall level of roadway safety. In one case, the data revealed the potential for reducing standardlighting levels on urban interstates by as much as 50 percent. Theresearchers calculated the minimum illuminance requirement for variousroad classifications and compared those requirements with roadwaylighting guidelines issued by the Illuminating Engineering Society ofNorth America (IES). The research team calculated that the lightinglevel required for urban interstates is 0.37 foot-candle (4 lux), whichis significantly less than the 0.84 foot-candle (9 lux) that IESrecommends. The results for other roadway classifications show that theexisting IES recommendations are suitable; the researchers'calculations resulted in lighting levels that fall within the range ofIES minimum and maximum standards. Selecting Lighting Levels Selecting the appropriate lighting level for various roads andfeatures is a critical aspect of adapting the lighting system. TheInternational Commission on Illumination, a lighting standardsorganization, devised a system that provides both a methodology forselecting the lighting design level and a method for adapting thelighting level based on specified criteria for individual roadways. FHWAand the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute researchers based theirdesign methodology on this system to comply with the internationalstandard, but the team also proposes a more extensive classificationsystem to take advantage of the benefits of adaptive lighting forroadways. Additional metrics include links to IES requirements andconsideration of traffic volume, geometric design, and pedestrianvolume. The proposed system starts with the IES characterization of thefacility to be lighted. The IES separates lighting design criteria byits application to roadways, streets, and residential or pedestrianfacilities. First, roadway lighting criteria are provided for freeways,expressways, limited access roadways, and roads on which pedestrians,cyclists, and parked vehicles are generally not present. Second, streetlighting criteria are provided for major, collector, and local roadswhere pedestrians and cyclists are generally present. Criteria forresidential/pedestrian area lighting are provided primarily for thesafety and security of pedestrians and not specifically for drivers.Once a lighting designer selects the facility type, he or she uses thecharacteristics of the facility as weighting functions to determine therequirements of the lighting system. The designer then subtracts the sum of these weighting values froma base value. The base value changes based on the facility type. Forroadways, the base value is 5. When the sum of the weighting values issubtracted from the base value, the result is called an"H-class." If the result of this calculation is not a wholenumber, the next lower positive whole number is used (for example, H3-5would use the H3 lighting level class). Negative numbers would result inapplying the highest lighting level, or HI class. Similarly, if thecalculated number is higher than the highest class number, the lowestlighting level, or H4 class, is used. Once the lighting designer calculates the H-class, he or shedetermines the design criteria for the roadway. For each class, thelighting levels are specified in terms of average luminance, uniformity,and veiling luminance. The average luminance is the average lightinglevel on the roadway. The uniformity represents the ratio of the averageto minimum light level and the average to maximum light level. Theseuniformity ratios control the range of light and dark on the roadway.The veiling luminance is a measure of glare and limits the amount oflight that is projected by a luminaire towards a driver. For an adaptive lighting system in which the lighting level changesbased on the conditions of the roadway, the weighting functions changeas the roadway conditions change. This determines a different lightingclass and therefore a different required design level. Timing Lighting Adjustments Some conditions that can change throughout the night and influencethe lighting level required to maintain safety include traffic volume,pedestrian and bicycle presence, parked vehicles, ambient conditions,and pedestrian safety and security. As these conditions change, anadaptive lighting system will adjust luminance levels accordingly.(Weather conditions, such as fog, rain, and snow, are also factors thatinfluence lighting level, but they were not included in this analysis.) Two approaches typically used to trigger lighting adjustments in anadaptive system include curfews, in which the lighting system changes ata predetermined time, and roadway monitoring. Curfews are used to adaptlighting systems during defined time periods. Operators establish curfewtimes based on an evaluation of parameters of interest. For example,operators could evaluate average traffic and pedestrian volumes on anhourly basis to determine the timing of adaptive changes. Operators needto be able to override the adaptive cycle, as needed, for specialevents. Actively monitoring the roadway through pedestrian and vehiclecounts is an alternative to curfews. Active monitoring requires vehicledetectors or the review of roadway video to determine when to adjustlighting levels. The resource requirements for a monitoring system canbe significant, although they might become less demanding once connectedvehicle and connected infrastructure technologies provide a new sourceof data on traffic and pedestrian volumes. Controlling Lighting Adjustments The recommended technological approach to adaptive lighting isdimming. In the past, reduced lighting on roadways was typicallyaccomplished through switching or "half-code" lighting, inwhich every other luminaire or the luminaires on one side of the roadwayare turned off or removed. Although this method is cost effective,conserves energy, and is relatively easy to implement, half-codelighting makes it impossible to meet design criteria for uniformity andglare control. This approach presents legal issues because the inabilityto meet design criteria might affect the safety of roadway users. In contrast, dimming a luminaire facilitates adjusting the lightlevel without upsetting the other design criteria. Dimming luminairesare typically capable of dimming from 100-percent output to 10 percentof maximum output, depending on the technology of the light source.Although this method does not conserve as much energy aslight-extinguishing methods, its ability to maintain lightinguniformity' might be the best solution for conserving energy whileminimizing the likelihood of negatively affecting driver or pedestriansafety. Light-dimming methods have other advantages. Dimming lights insteadof leaving them fully on at night reduces the effect of sky glow (a formof light pollution) and reduces disruptions to organisms' circadianrhythms--the physical, mental, and behavioral changes that follow aroughly 24-hour cycle, responding primarily to light and darkness in theenvironment. Disruptions to circadian rhythms can impact sleepingpatterns and general health and well-being. Dimming works particularly well with solid-state lighting, whichuses semiconductor LEDs as a source of illumination rather than electricarc lighting and, by its nature, dims more smoothly. In addition,solid-state lighting conserves energy, typically yielding a 50-percentreduction in energy use over traditional lighting. Using an adaptivelighting design with solid-state luminaires can further reduce energyusage. Converting to solid-state luminaires also might reducemaintenance costs because they last longer than traditional lightsources. Legal Implications of Adaptive Lighting The parties most concerned with the legal implications of anadaptive lighting system are the owners of such systems and theirdesigners. The owner will likely be the government agency responsiblefor drafting the regulations defining the system and for implementingit. The designers include the engineers and design professionals workingfor the owner or agency. The legal concerns involved range from the agency'sjustification for implementing such a system to the legal liability ofthe owners and designers in the event of a personal injury lawsuitattributed to the adaptive lighting system. For the agency implementing an adaptive lighting system,demonstrating the basis for the application of its expert discretion iscrucial when defending its decision to implement the system. Supportingthe decision with empirical data will strengthen the case for needingthe system, as will adherence to industry-accepted guidelines in thesystem's design. A narrative explanation of the agency'sreasons for the decision to implement the system--written or endorsed bythe engineers with the particular expertise--will leave little doubt asto the basis for the new system. A well-supported agency decision willlikely receive substantial deference from a reviewing court. Adaptive Lighting Systems in Use Today San Jose, CA, has implemented a widespread adaptive lightingsystem. Since 2008, the city of San Jose has gradually upgraded its62,000 yellow sodium vapor streetlights to use LEDs and paired them witha remote monitoring and adaptive control system. This approach enablesthe city to boost the efficiency and life expectancy of itsstreetlights, obtain timely and accurate information on the performanceof its lights, and modulate lighting levels to provide only the amountof light needed. The control system for the streetlight network provides real-timereporting of energy usage and non-operating streetlights for improvedresponse. Converting to LED lighting reduced streetlight energy costs by40 percent to 60 percent, while improving lighting quality andvisibility and enhancing safety. The city is earning ongoing savings byextending the maintenance cycle for bulb replacement, and it receivescredit from Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) for dimming itsstreetlights in the late evening hours. "In 2011, San Jose supported the California Street LightAssociation in negotiations with PG&E for a pilot program to reducethe energy bill for controllable luminaires for a few streetlightcustomers," says Gregory Jobe, an associate engineer who works forthe city. "By late 2015, we will have implemented anetwork-controlled dimmable streetlight pilot program open to allPG&E's streetlight customers at a reduced administrative cost.After an introductory period of a few months, the dimming schedule maybe adjusted on an annual basis, and the tariff may be evaluated forpotential modifications." By switching to more energy-efficient lights and modulating itslighting levels in relation to changing activity levels, San Jose willsave 1,885,000 kilowatt-hours annually, avoiding emissions equivalent toapproximately 1,433 tons (1,300 metric tonnes) of carbon dioxide. Thatsavings is equivalent to the volume of greenhouse gases emitted annuallyby 274 passenger vehicles. San Jose aims to replace 100 percent of the city'sstreetlights with LED lighting equipped with an adaptive control systemby 2022. The city expects to convert more than 20,000 lights by the endof 2015. So far, the city has concentrated on heavily used majorroadways and a contiguous area in the southeastern portion of San Jose,including lights on a number of corridors identified as having a highpercentage of pedestrian and bicyclist injuries and fatalities. Otherpriority locations include 20 areas identified by the local policedepartment as gang activity hot spots, as well as areas with a high rateof streetlight wire theft. The streetlight control system providesreal-time notification of circuit malfunctions, enabling the city tointervene and deter wire theft. "Overall, residents have reported that they feel safer afterdark because they can see better," says Amy Olay, planning andsustainability division manager with San Jose. "Others areimpressed by the LEDs' lighting quality, although we have receivedsome complaints. One complaint is that the lights are too bright,shining into houses. In those cases, we adjusted the tilt of the LEDfixture to correct the problem." Adaptive Lighting In Cambridge, MA The city of Cambridge, MA, is replacing about 7,000 lights (4,900streetlights and 2,100 in specialty and park fixtures) with LEDs andinstalling an adaptive control system that enables fine-tuning of lightoutput, reduction of energy use, and energy usage tracking capabilities. The city developed a system of classification to determineappropriate lighting levels for each street. Using detailed informationfrom the city's geographic information systems database, as well asonsite evaluations, staff assessed streets for width, light polespacing, and vehicular and pedestrian activity, and assigned each tocategories corresponding to lighting criteria in accordance withindustry guidelines, including the IES Standard Practice for RoadwayLighting (RP-8-14) and Technical Memorandum on Light Trespass (TM-11). After comprehensive analysis, the city assigned the streets to arange of categories that address lighting requirements for both roadwaysand sidewalks, and limit glare and light trespass onto abuttingproperties. A wireless control system enables operators to dim thestreetlights to 70 percent of their initial brightness. Later in theevening, the lights dim even further to about 35 percent of theirinitial brightness in response to low pedestrian volumes at that time ofnight. The new streetlight system consumes less than 25 percent of theenergy of the existing streetlights, saving the city an estimated$500,000 per year in electricity costs. "Cambridge's initial reasons for using adaptive controlswere energy savings and asset management," says Glenn Heinmiller, adesign consultant involved in the project. "But we soon realizedthat significantly reducing light trespass by dimming later in theevening was a huge benefit, especially in our dense residentialneighborhoods." The new streetlights distribute light in a pattern similar to theold streetlights, but the amount of light crossing property lines fromthe public way will typically be half as much as with the existinglights, and even lower late at night. The new streetlights make colorslook brighter and more faithful to the natural color. Trees look greeninstead of brown, a blue car looks blue instead of grey. Because of thisimproved color rendering, everything appears brighter and sharper underthe new streetlights, even when the amount of light is less than withthe old lights. Lowered light levels are sometimes perceived as unsafe to roadwayusers and pedestrians, but residents in Cambridge have not raisedconcerns about the new lighting. "Based on our experience inCambridge," Heinmiller says, "I think that fears that loweredlight levels will be perceived as unsafe are unfounded. In our city of100,000 residents, we've had no comments about lower levels. No onehas complained or even seemed to notice when the light levels are cut inhalf." The Future of Adaptive Lighting Systems Adaptive lighting systems effectively reduce the cost and extent ofthe undesirable effects of roadway lighting while maintaining safety andusability. Integrating these systems with tools that are capable ofsensing and communicating near real-time electrical and lighting datafrom the field will make it possible to control lighting levels moreeffectively--and even on demand. Vehicle-to-infrastructure communicationsystems that send real-time information to operating systems couldcontrol lighting in response to just a single vehicle. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] The Virginia Tech Transportation Institute has createddemonstration prototypes of an on-demand lighting system. On-demandlighting systems also could help first responders by flashing lightwhere assistance is needed or along evacuation routes during disasters.Although these technologies are still in the early stages ofdevelopment, adaptive systems are already shining light on today'sincreasingly dynamic roadway environment. Ronald B. Gibbons, Ph.D., is director of the Center forInfrastructure-Based Safety Systems and is the lead lighting researchscientist at the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute. He also is thedirector of Division 4 of the International Commission on Illuminationand a past president of the IES. Gibbons earned his Ph.D. in systemsdesign engineering from the University of Waterloo, Canada. Joseph Cheung is a civil engineer in the FHWA Office of Safety,where he helps develop safety technologies. He has B.S. and M.S. degreesin civil engineering, with an emphasis on traffic and transportation,from the University of Maryland. Cheung is a registered professionalengineer in Maryland. Paul Lutkevich, P.E., has more than 30 years of experience in thedesign and research of exterior lighting systems. He is the past chairof the IES Roadway Lighting committee and Technical Review Council. Healso is a member of the International Commission on Illumination.Lutkevich has a B.S. degree in electrical engineering from theUniversity of Massachusetts Dartmouth. For more information, see www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/14051/14051.pdf or contact Ron Gibbons at 540-231-1581or , Joe Cheung at 202-366-6994 or, or Paul Lutkevich at 617-960-4903 or.
Corporation to Overhaul Street Lighting System - the Hindu
By allotting Rs. 5 crore a year the Coimbatore Corporation has planned to overhaul the street lighting system in the city.Mayor S.M. Velusamy announced the decision after a few councillors complained that street lights in their localities did not glow for long and that their complaints to the officials concerned had not yielded the desired results.Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Councillor A. Nandhakumar, who started the debate, also said the recent rains, bad roads and absence of street lights had compromised the safety of many a motorist in the city. Soon All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Councillor S. Balan also joined him. He said that his ward residents too were victims.Ward officesThis prompted the Mayor to ask why the maintenance of street lights should not be reverted to ward offices. At present, the Corporation had centralised and outsourced the same to contractors.The Corporation could fine the contractors or withhold their payment but they would not serve the purpose. Was there an alternative, he asked the City Engineer in-charge K. Sugumar.The officer replied that replacement of choke or bulb or any other part would only serve limited purpose as problems would continue to recur for the entire street lighting system was decades old. The best solution would be to replace the system in toto.Mr. Sugumar said that the old city area - 60 wards - had 44,000-odd street lights and it would require around Rs. 25 crore to replace the entire street lighting system.He also suggested that the Corporation could go in for the project in a phased manner to complete the work in a few years.Taking a cue, Mayor Mr. Velusamy said that Corporation would consider spending Rs. 5 crore a year to revamp the entire street lighting system.He also got the Council to pass a resolution in this regard.The Coimbatore Corporation has undertaken a similar project in this regard for the added areas. At Rs. 20 crore the Corporation planned to replace existing lights with new ones and also install new lights. The work is in progress.
Big Al's Advocates Proper Reptile Care
The team at Big Al's Pet Supercentres in Hamilton, Ontario, champions all types of pet ownership, including reptiles. They love reptiles so much that they have a complete reptile department that mimics their natural environments, giving customers a realistic view into the world of a variety of reptiles, including snakes, turtles, geckos, bearded dragons and so many more.The reptile department is composed of four distinct sections, each showcasing different species of reptiles (and a few non-reptiles, like frogs and tarantulas) - the rainforest, snake, turtle/semi-aquatic and desert sections.Each section is outfitted with top-of-the-line equipment and accessories that allow the reptiles to thrive, while also giving customers a unique opportunity to see them interact and feed in their natural environments. The rainforest section, for example, is equipped with a misting and controlled lighting system that allows staff to turn on specialized night lights, giving people the chance to see nocturnal species of frogs and geckos that are not usually active during the day.The turtle/semi-aquatic section is built to simulate their natural environment, and is complete with fish, shrimp and a variety of live plants. Big Al's sells a variety of turtles, including some of the more rare species for all turtle enthusiasts.If you are interested in desert-dwelling creatures, you will love their desert section and the terrariums that mimic the natural desert wilderness. Whether you are looking for a leopard gecko or a bearded dragon, the desert section has a huge variety of unique desert creatures to choose from. Big Al's is a huge proponent of proper care and breeding of any animal, and are proud that 100 per cent of the 30 to 40 species of snakes they carry are all captive bred. They also take painstaking care to ensure their snake section is meticulous and immaculately kept so that their snakes are happy and healthy.Big Al's team includes experienced reptile specialists who are also reptile owners and breeders, and are also involved in endangered breeding and recovery programs. They will provide you will the help and advice you need to keep your reptiles happy, while also providing you with the best in reptile supplies.If you want to see an authentic reptile environment, and for the best in reptile supplies and advice, visit Big Al's Pet Supercentres in Hamilton today! Call them at 905-560-1000, or contact them online with any questions you may have.
Hand-Picked Tips to Consider While Choosing Affordable Modern Lighting
Affordable modern lighting has almost revolutionized the traditional lighting system. People are no longer showing any likings towards the old and unattractive lighting tracks. They seem to embrace the latest lighting designs and styles to generate an elegant and relaxing mood. The choice of affordable modern lighting arrangement is endless. They come in wide range of options to suit the taste and preference of customers.The lighting options include table and floor lamps, ceiling and wall lamps all within their own styling. Be it indoor or outdoor the lighting fixtures come as the unique and the definitive statement in your home and office. It harmonizes well with affordable modern office furniture as well. With the passing of time, domestic lighting has been upgraded and improved to suit the requirements of every household. Here are some tips that can help you find a better selection.Go online for lighting fixturesWhenever you are planning to opt for affordable modern lighting arrangements, it is advised to make a thorough online research. Here you will find some of the finest selection with fair price tag. This is not all. You will also get an in-depth knowledge about the lighting features and options. Well, at the time of shopping online you may find it difficult to keep track of the lighting system you have seen. So, prior to online research it is advised to maintain a bookmark folder as that will help you save the pages of greater importance and usefulness.Give value to your preferenceWhen looking for affordable modern lighting fixtures, it is advised to give respect to your tastes and preference. So just take your time and decide what you exactly require. If you give importance to your preference, you will find it easier to select the apt lighting styles. What is noteworthy to mention is that affordable modern lighting are available in varied shapes, sizes, colors etc. Hence by sparing a time to do a little bit research can help you finding the choice able lighting fixtures without any trouble.Pay heed to your budgetIt is important for the consumers to pay respect to the budget factors prior to selecting affordable modern lighting arrangements. As a buyer you won't ever want to overspend on something as simple as light for your home. Try to select those budget-friendly lighting solutions that give you the styling which is what you exactly look for.Energy saving mattersWith increase in electric units, having an energy efficient lighting system makes a whole lot difference. Select those affordable modern lighting that demand very low voltage and thus set a perfect example of energy use. Pay proper attention to the brand name alongside sticking to energy efficient lighting system. Remember energy is precious, so it is our duty to preserve and this will in turn save our Earth. So just encourage the use of energy efficient light fittings and systems and get committed towards energy efficient exercise.Hence, what are you waiting for? Just follow the above mentioned tips prior to purchasing the affordable modern lighting system, you always crave for and feel the difference.
JDM Projector Headlights - Shinny Halo Retrofit
Headlamps are important components of a vehicle's lighting system. They play an extremely important role in safeguarding the vehicle and people inside from being damaged and injured in car bumps in an indirect way. Headlamps are originally designed to be used in the darkness. Actually, they also perform good task in some other low-visibility circumstances such as torrential rain and dense fog. The strong illumination produced by the headlamps allows the driver to know the road condition ahead clearly, and then make a quick response on how to steering his vehicle accordingly. If there is any obstacle or oncoming vehicle, the driver is able to get rid of them. Possible collisions or crashes with other road users can be effectively avoided.There are all sorts of headlamps made and offered on the automotive aftermarket. There you can find advanced HID headlamps, led headlamps, shinny dual halo headlamps, projector headlamps, etc. Different sort has different look at night. No matter what your car make and model is, you are sure to find the right pairs specially made for your car. If your car model is Nissan Armada, do choose the right ones that fit Nissan Armada. Another thing you should also pay attention to is the manufacture year of your car. The same car series may have different type of headlamps if they are manufactured in different years.Once your existing headlamps can not work as before, find brand new replacements for them as quickly as possible. This is to guarantee a safe driving in the future. Lightings on the aftermarket are usually for sale at attractive low prices customers will love.
Aer Lingus Is Setting a Mood with New Onboard Led Lighting to Fight Jet-lag
Aer Lingus has announced today that it is introducing a new customised mood lighting system to its fleet of aircraft.The Irish airline said that the new lighting will "enhance the comfort of its guests" and is the latest in a range of updates introduced by the company in recent times.In January they launched their branding with an updated logo as well as new aircraft livery. googletag.cmd.push(function() googletag.display('div-gpt-ad-incontent-1'); ); First Officer Laura Bennett;First Officer Niall McCauley;Sean Doyle, Aer Lingus Chief Executive; Mike Rutter, Aer Lingus Chief Operating Officer;and Dara McMahon, Aer Lingus Director of Marketing at the Aer Lingus brand reveal in front of an Airbus A330 freshly painted in the new aircraft livery. Photo: Naoise CulhaneThe lighting system being introduced to the fleet of Airbus planes is part of a partnership with Cobalt Aerospace and they hope that it will minimise the effects of jet-lag.READ MORE'Ryanair is the new coal': Airline criticised after ranking among Europe's top-10 carbon emittersThe new LEDs come in a number of mood settings such as: Bright White: "This modernised white light is to be used as the standard light setting for interior aircraft cleaning and maintenance by staff. "Strong Blue: "This cool, strong shade of blue is the ideal tone for creating a calming environment, as the blue light effect helps passengers to feel energised and at ease for boarding and disembarkation. This lighting is applicable to both the A330 and the A320 aircraft."Dim Lavender: This purple spectrum emits purple tones which is the ideal setting to create a cool and calming cabin environment, acting as the perfect backdrop to enhance passenger experience during the flight."Blood Orange (A330 aircraft only): "This deep sunset colour was developed to mimic the setting summer sun to prepare long-haul guests for landing with an outpouring of light. This dawn stimulating feature will be scheduled to activate between 90 and 60 minutes before the given landing time, making for a peaceful descent. This setting is applicable to the A330 aircraft only."Aer Lingus teal green (on A320 aircraft only): "The dominant Aer Lingus logo colour, teal reflects the sleek and contemporary feel of the Aer Lingus brand. This special colour has been developed for the narrow body aircraft and will be used for special events."Commenting on the new mood lighting system, Mike Rutter, Chief Operating Officer at Aer Lingus, said: We are delighted to unveil the new LED mood lighting system which will further enhance the Aer Lingus guest in-flight experience. In recent years, weve invested significantly in our business, including the launch of a refreshed brand in January of this year to improving our value proposition and overall guest experience and becoming Irelands only four-star airline. "Innovations that we have introduced include the roll-out of WiFi on our A330s, automated check-in and bag drop at Dublin Airport, Business Class improvement with fully lie-flat beds and economy catering upgrades. "The introduction of this mood lighting system is the latest initiative to improve our guests comfort onboard."READ MORENorwegian chief meets Boeing bosses in 737 Max talks googletag.cmd.push(function() googletag.display('div-gpt-ad-incontent-2'); ); At the moment 25 Aer Lingus aircraft have been fitted with the "experience enhancing" lighting with the remained of the fleet to be updated during standard maintenance checks.Ben Brown, Director at Cobalt Aerospace, added: Partnering with Aer Lingus to deliver customised mood lighting is a great development for our company. "Cobalt Aerospace offers highly advanced LED lighting systems for aircraft interiors, an enhancement which will give Aer Lingus guests unrivalled comfort.
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