10 Most Frequently Asked Questions on Stepper Motor

Here are top 10 questions about stepper motor asked by people online.

1. Weird stepper motor behaviour on RAMPS in arduino

The video you show shows movement of far more than 1mm. This indicates that the steps per unit is far different than you are configuring the Marlin software for. With a /-1mm and 212 steps per mm, there should have been 212 steps sent to your stepper. Recalculate your steps/mm values and slow down the feed rate to get something reliable. For experimenting, in Pronterface, set the feedrate of 10mm/sec (600mm/min) or 1mm/sec (60mm/min) to slow things down so you can hear or count the steps with your ear, then choose smaller steps, like 0.1mm and see if you get the planned displacement. If, at a really slow speed, you do not get the corresponding movement, then your steps/mm need adjustment to match your system. Eyeballing it, I would say the called-for 1mm or 212 steps is moving the stage about 10mm, so you would need numbers more like this for the x and y axes:

2. Stepper motor resolution calculation

Your motor has a total step of 600. It means, for a complete revolution, you have 600 steps. Hence the resolution appears to be 360/600 = 0.6 per step. This is the resolution in what is called FULL MODE. However, your motor can works in STEP MODE 1/8. That means that you can move the motor by 1/8 of a step. Hence, you can achieve 8 more steps and thus increase your resolution by 8. In this mode, your actual resolution is 0.6/8 = 0.075

3. Stepper motor phases and torque output from shaft

5 terminals indicates that your motor has 4 coils with a common terminal. This is called a '4 phase' motor because the 4 coils are separately powered, one at a time. The characteristics of a stepper motor are determined by its materials and construction (rotor size, tooth and lamination shape, VR/PM/hybrid type etc. ). Just knowing the voltage and current alone is not enough, because it only tells you the input power, not how much of that power is converted into torque and output power. To calculate torque and power for a given voltage, current and speed you need the specifications of your motor. If they are not available then you will have to test the motor to determine them. The graph below shows test results for a particular 57mm bipolar (2 phase) permanent magnet stepper motor driven with constant current PWM:- Notice how torque drops rapidly as speed increases. Since mechanical power = torque x rotational speed, even at its best this motor is less than 40% efficient. Over 60% of the input power is wasted. 4 phase unipolar motors are less efficient because only half of each winding is powered, so it must be wound with thinner wire which has higher resistance. Efficiency and power output is also affected by the driver. A unipolar motor driven with constant voltage through series resistors may peak at less than 30% efficiency. Without resistors it might be a bit more efficient, but have lower output power and maximum stepping rate.

4. Arduino and stepper motor

There is generally a stepper example in the arduino Compiler, you can find the code there, or look at the stepper library However arduinos can not control steppers directly, but they send signals to stepper drivers, which then send the correct voltages to the stepper to rotate in a specific direction and rotate at a specific frequency. Arduinos are basically 'bit banging' namely they send a single high and low signal at a specific frequency and duty cycle, which determines the rotational speed of the motor itself. One line is high/low for direction, another for the signal. The advantage is you can count how many times you bit banged, and have an open loop position control system for easy NC applicationsNo-one would use the analog pins on an arduino to control stepper motors. 4wire stepper motors have A and B coils that require specific timing to excite (read, step) the motor and a large amperage/voltage requirement. Hence the drivers. Considering read the wiki about steppers to get a better idea about them.

5. How to measure Stepper motor current when using EasyDriver A3967?

You can measure right across R1 and R2 to get the current in each phase. Since they are 0.75 you must divide the voltage by 0.75.With resistances this low, a good practice is to put a scope probe on either side of the sense resistor and use the math function (A-B) to subtract the traces

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Finding Inexpensive Stepper Motors
Finding stepper motors for particular projects can be a simple task if you have the right materials and resources. Brush-less motors are used in a number of applications and are very popular among hobbyists. Some examples to projects that may require a motor include, robotics, CNC machining, and other automated mechanical projects. Step motors are popular because they are inexpensive, abundant, and reliable. Since these motors are used in many machines, they are easily found, if you know where to look. This article explains how finding inexpensive step motors can be made easy.Every year the United States alone will throw out over 300 million electronic products. What many people do not realize is these electronics are filled with reusable parts. One of these parts that can very often be found in an old machine are motors. A great place to begin looking for a step motor is in a recycled floppy drives. brush-less motors are used to control the read/write position of the head. Depending on the drive each one will have different settings on how many steps are required to complete a full revolution. In most cases a stepper motor will reach a complete revolution within 100-400 steps. The range of each stepper motor will vary as well, often they are between.9 and 3.6 degrees. Step motors go even further in depth when micro-stepping, unipolar, and bipolar motors are introduced.Throwing out that old printer? Not so fast, there is most likely a stepper motor in there somewhere. In older HP printers, particularly LaserJet III printers, fairly powerful stepper motors can be found, and lets not forget they are free. Another computer part that will have a step motor are hard drives, usually in older computers. Make sure to remove the step motor and not the spindle motor that spins the platter drive. The stepper motor can be found on the actuator arm which moves the heads around the platters. Good info·RELATED QUESTIONHow do I find investors for creating innovative medical equipment (e.g. a cost effective electric wheelchair to help in doing small indoor chores and rehabilitation) for India's specially abled people?The global rehabilitation equipment market is expected to witness sustained growth due to the rising incidences of degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's, arthritis, etc. and a growing number of patients suffering from trauma who need rehabilitation therapy. In addition, a growing geriatric population is also likely to spur market growth during the assessment period. There is a pressing need for devices that provide assistance to the physically challenged people across the globe.Moreover, since manufacturers have established excellent channels of communication with the needy population of such devices, innovation in the rehabilitation equipment market has also increased to a new level. Also, governments across the world are providing support and subsidies for rehabilitation equipment which is also likely to boost the demand for such kind of equipment. Moreover, favorable reimbursement policies in the developed markets of the West are expected to stimulate market growth as well.A sample of this report is available upon request@ global rehabilitation equipment market is slated to touch a value of about US$ 13,400 Mn in the year 2022 and grow at a robust CAGR during the assessment period.4 Forecast Highlights on Global Rehabilitation Equipment MarketAs per the forecast of Persistence Market Research, the mobility equipment product type segment is slated to touch a value of more than US$ 3,900 Mn in the year 2022. This represents a robust CAGR growth during the assessment period of 2017-2022. The mobility equipment product type segment is estimated to account for more than one-fourth of the revenue share of the product type segment by the year 2017 and is forecasted to lose market share by 2022 over 2017.As per the forecast of Persistence Market Research, the rehabilitation centers segment will reach a value of about US$ 3,350 Mn in the year 2017. This represents a robust CAGR growth during the forecast period. The rehabilitation centers segment is forecasted to account for nearly one-third of the total revenue share of the end user segment by the end of the year 2017 and is expected to lose in market share by 2022 as compared with the year 2017.As per the forecast of Persistence Market Research, the physiotherapy segment is slated to reach a value of more than US$ 9,800 Mn in 2022. The physiotherapy segment is expected to gain market share by the end of the year 2022. The largest share is contributed by the Europe region in the physiotherapy segment.Persistence Market Research forecasts the Germany rehabilitation equipment market to exhibit a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of nearly 6% from 2017 to 2022.Request report Toc@ report has also included the profiles of some of the leading companies in the rehabilitation equipment market like Caremax Rehabilitation Equipment Co. Ltd, Drive Devilbiss Healthcare, Invacare Corporation, GF Health Products, Inc., Roscoe Medical, Medline Industries, Inc., Roma Medical Aids Ltd., and Dynatronics Corporation
Easy to Build Cnc Mill Stepper Motor and Driver Circuits
This is a follow up to the Easy to Build Desk Top 3 Axis CNC Milling Machine Once you get the machine all put together its time to make it go.So it's time to drive the motors. And here I've put together a circuit that I think is the absolute cheapest and easiest way to control stepper motors with step and direction signals. It works with many of the free or low cost softwares that produce step and direction signals through the parallel printer port. I'll explain how it works but for those of you who just want to get on with it... The_Next_StepBut I would suggest for those of you who are unfamiliar with circuits to do it on a bread board (see pictures). This way you can easly correct any mistakes and try different things.This schematic is just to control one motor so for the milling machine you need 3 of these circuits and 3 motors.From Left to right and top to bottom. I try to draw schematics so that positive voltages are toward the top and ground or negative volge is toward the bottom. Inputs are to the left and outputs to the right. Fist off the voltage that you are going to use to run the motor needs to be stepped down and regulated for the logic chips. I used a 6.2 volt Zener to do this because it's low enought for the logic chips to receive the signals from your printer port and high enough for the outputs to drive many of the standard power FETs, so you may not have to use logic FETs like the schematic shows. So the resistor R1 drops the voltage, the Zener diode regulates it to 6.2 volts and the capacitor C1 filters out any noise from the motor, and this voltage powers the two IC's.The first IC (CD4516) is called an up/down counter. One signal from the printer port will tell the counter if it will count up or down and the other signal, called step, will increment or decrement the counter by one count. Now were only going to use two outputs from the counter Q1 and Q2. With this binary counting method there are only 4 combinations of output from the counter: 00, 01, 10, and 11. These lines are fed to the A and B inputs of the other IC (CD4028) which decodes these combinations to 4 seprate outputs.I did a trick here using the C input to work as an Enable input. If the Enable(optional) is connected to the parallel port and the computor tells it to shut off all of the outputs to the FETs will go low(Off). So the four outputs of the decoder drive the FET transistors and the FETs drive the four poles of the motor.Now everybody wants to know what the light bulb is for. Its not so much whether you use a bulb or a resistor, its that a bulb comes with a socket. You can get these wedge base light bulbs from 1 watt to 20 watts. Start with may be a 4 watt bulb and if you find you need a little more beef you just pull it out and put in a 10 watt bulb. It's really handy. And I found it's good to have some voltage drop there as kind of a ballast for the motor windings. The diodes catch some of the current that comes out of the motor each time the FET transistors turn off. The diode feeds this current back to the supply.When you get the circuit up and running find a power supply that puts out more voltage than you really need and then change out light bulbs till you get it running smoothly. Some of my stepper motors are 5 or 6 volt and some are 12 volt but it all works out.OK here's what your all looking for. I made a simple PC board layout that includes 3 motor driver circuits connected to a 25 pin D sub Parallel printer port connector. Here's a picture of the layout. At the top of the picture you see a place for a voltage regulator. You can use that or you can put a resistor and Zener Diode in its place(like the schematic shows). On the right edge is a place for the 25 pin D-sub connector that connects to the parallel printer port. You just jam the PC board between the two rows of pins and solder it. On the left side are places for the lamp sockets. You need to look over the schematic to see where some of the parts go but it's all there. If you have a time machine you can go to the future and ask yourself to make the circuit board with the finished machine and then bring it back and finish building the machine. After a couple of tries I got the board to come out pretty good. The machine routes what are called isolation paths which means it seperates the copper that is associated with a conductive path from all the other copper around it. This leaves some areas of the board that are not associated with a path still covered with copper. You could leave this extra copper on there but when your soldering it is easy to get solder bridges across the isolation paths and short circuit something. So I take the soldering iron and touch it on the excess copper and peal it up off the board. It makes the board more like what you would get if you chemical etched it or bought it from a board house(see below). Any way look over the schematic and place the parts accordingly. I added a few capacitors along the power lines just for general principals. There were so few traces on the top side of the board I didn't bother milling it. I just used jumper wires. See the pictures below of the populated board. All the little FETs ligned up like marching soldiers.OK, For all you chemistry majors who want to do something a little more professional here are some .pdf files you can print out and iron on or what ever you do to make an etched PC board. There's a Top Silk (just for reference), Top Copper, and Bottom Copper.If you want to go easy Just do the Bottom Copper. There's not that much on the top and you can just solder jumpers where you need to.Don't be nervus. It's just a little electricity. First off it would be good to load up the KCAM (or what ever you plan on using) in your computor. Then when you feel comfortable that all the parts are in the right place plug the parallel port connector into the driver board(as shown below) and put a low wattage build in the socket for the motor. In this case I'm using middle, the Y axis driver.For power I like to use one if these universal power adapters with selectable voltage output. They're cheap and they don't put out a lot of current so if something goes wrong it's less likely to damage your circuit. Set the voltage low and see if you have some vlotage on the power pins(16) of the CD4516 and the CD4028. If you don't have a volt meter just take an LED and tie a 10K(BRN,BLK,ORN) resistor to the positive(the long leg) and wire to ground tied to the negative(the short leg). Now you can use this as a probe to see where you have voltage. It will be very dim but we don't want to draw too much current away from the circuit.Now go into the computer program and find the Setup Table. Set the steps per inch to 1000. Then open the CNC control and set the single step for .001 inch and activate the single step mode. Now each time you click the yellow arrows (up and down for the Y axis) the computor will output one pulse to the stepper motor driver circuit. Put your LED probe on pin 10 of the CD4516. This is the up down input. When you click the up arrow the input will be low(LED off) and when you click the down arrow the input will be high(LED on). Pin 15 is the step input you will see a very short blink each time you click a n up or down arrow on this pin. Pin 6 is the Q1 output. It will change state(high/low) each time you click an arrow. And Pin 11 is the Q2 output. It will change state every other time you click an arrow.On the output side of things we should see some activity on the CD4028 chip. Putting your probe on any of the output pins 1,4,6,or 7. These outputs drive the FETs. You should see the output go high every 4th time you click the up or down arrow.If this all makes sense so far it's time to get the motor running. The common wire or wires of the motor which are the center tap of the windings should be connected to the light bulb. The other four wires should go to the four FETs on the circuit. If you are really lucky you will get the combination just right in the first couple of trys. Other wise just keep switching the wires arround until the motor steps in the same direction each time you click the arrows.Watch the video in the next step. It may give you a better idea what to do. I'm not a Linux user yet but I have played with it enough to be dangerous. But for you Linux users Chaddcurtis has contributed some setup files and information to help you use Linux CNC with the parallel port and this circuit board layout. Thanks a lot Chad and more power to you.
How Stepper Motor Actually Works?
How Stepper Motor actually works?Stepper motor has rotor and stator. The rotor is the moveable part which is either variable reluctance or permanent magnet while the stator is often constructed with multiphase windings. Stator actually has three or four phase windings that are wounded with the number of poles decided as per the angular displacement per pulses.Stepper motor for sale works through the pulses that when applied it turned through the particular angle. This angle is actually the point from which motor shaft turns which is always expressed in degree.The number of pulses given to the motor decides the number of angles to cover. So, the motor shaft position is controlled by the number of pulses. This feature only makes it suitable for open-loop control system where an accurate shaft position is maintained with the fixed number of pulses with no use of feedback sensor.Image Source: manufacturingetIf the angle of a step is smaller, the number of steps will be greater per revolution and so the accuracy of obtained position will be higher. The largest angle can be 90 degrees and small angle will be as 0.72 degrees. Anyway, the most common steps of the angle which are used are 1.8°, 2.5°, 7.5° and 15°.The shaft rotation direction depends on the pulses sequence applied to the stator. The shaft speed is directly proportional to the input pulses frequency. So, when a frequency is low, the stepper motor rotates in steps and when the frequency is high, it rotates in continuous speed.Nowadays, you can find varied types of stepper motors with wide ranges of sizes, constructions, wiring, steps count, gearing, programmed and many other things that are available in the market. These motors are modified with the digital control devices like the computer. And, due to this reason, it is now used in varied areas.Here are the ten basic stepper motor applications where it is essentially needed. So, let's know about different areas of its application:1. Electronic itemsStepper motor is used in the digital camera for focus and zoom function. In addition to this, various auxiliary elements such as cooling fans, CD ROM, also uses the motor. Now, the camera phone is also using motor inside the handset.Image Source: andcircuit2. Aircraft and AutomotiveStepper motor helps the car SUV's and RV's to catch the signals of telecommunication. It is also used for military antenna, cruise control, automated camera and automated sensing device.In aircraft, stepper motors are used in sensing devices, aircraft instruments, scanning equipment, antennas and more.Image Source: aeroexpo3. Medical EquipmentStep motors are used in scanners, automated device nanoscopic motion control, multi-axis stepper motor microscopic, samples, dispensing device, auto injectors and more.It is also used inside fluid pumps, blood analysis machinery, dental photography, and respirators.4. Industrial EquipmentStepper motors are used in automated production equipment, automotive gauges, and in retrofit cnc stepper motor kit for CNC machine control. Single and multi-axis stepper motor controllers are used with the motor for automated control.Image Source: cjmasset5. OfficesSteppers motors are incorporated in your PC, scanners, optical disk drive, data storage tape drives, bar code printers, printers and many other devices which are used in your office.6. Scientific InstrumentationIt is used in various scientific equipment like spectrographs, telescope positioning, and more.Image Source: ekspla7. Chemical IndustryVarious mixing and sampling devices used in chemical industry work on stepper motor controller with environmental testing equipment axis stepper motor controller.8. Gaming IndustryIt is used in the machine that power wheel spinners, card shufflers, and wheel spinners.Image Source: casinowhizz9. Security equipmentIt is used in the camera which is used for surveillance at various places like the commercial building, markets, local super markets and more.10. Digital WatchesMini stepping motors are used in clocks, electric meters, and watches which are machined by the implementations of various techniques.Image Source: rackcdn.These are the important usage of nema 17 stepp motor due to which it is essentially needed almost in every field. Nowadays, you can have the modified stepper motor as per your need with in-built digital technologies.Anyway, if you want more information concerning to Steppers motor, please let us know in our comment box·RELATED QUESTIONCan Thailand become a MedTech Innovator instead of a MedTech customer?Thailand is well poised for building and sustaining a start-up culture, encouraged by the government's Thailand 4.0 vision, which has seen entire sectors of the economy being rebuilt with new technology and overseas investment. A dedicated programme called 'Startup Thailand', set up by the National Innovation Agency (NIA), hopes to accomplish this by reforming government procurement, building innovation districts, and increasing international cooperation.As well as building the infrastructure of railways, airports and smart cities to support the new industries, the government is also investing heavily in its university system to boost research activity and train the thousands of engineers and scientists that will be needed for the planned expansions in targeted industries such as the biotech, biochemical, medtech and roboticsThe Thai government has progressive policies in place to help the country attain the position of "Thailand, a Hub of Wellness and Medical Services" within a ten-year timeframe (2016-2025). The plan focuses on four major areas: wellness, medical services, academic and medical centres, and health products. The government also provides additional technology-based incentives for investment in the development of core technologies - biotechnology, nanotechnology, advanced material technology, and digital technology - and enabling services that support targeted technology development.But will all this be enough?To find out, we spoke with Dr. Kakanand Srungboonmee, from the Centre of Data Mining and Biomedical Informatics, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, in Bangkok Thailand.As well as being an academic, innovator and start-up founder herself, Dr. Srungboonmee is also key in curating the speakers and topics for the Start-up Podium which will take place at MEDICAL FAIR THAILAND 2019 from 11 to 13 September in Bangkok.1. How would you describe the life sciences and medical/ health startup scene in Thailand?The life sciences and medical/health start-up ecosystem in Thailand is in an early stage. We are comparatively new to the idea of innovating our own solutions to our own problems. We have been good customers for a long time, using products invented and manufactured elsewhere in the world. Thailand's medical device market is the eighth largest in the Asia-Pacific region. Estimated in 2015 to be worth more than US$1.2 billion, it is expected to grow at a high single-digit rate (CAGR of 8.1 per cent during 2015 to 2020) to reach US$1.7 billion by 2020. Consumable devices and diagnostic imaging are among the products with large market share, followed by orthopaedics and prosthetics, dental products and patient aids. Local production is limited to consumables and basic medical devices.There are around 320 local manufacturers, mostly Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) producing products such as diagnostic kits, syringes, surgical gloves and catheters. Over 80 per cent of domestic production is for export. Thailand continues to rely on import to supply most of the market, particularly highgrade and sophisticated medical devices. When those foreign products have not really met our needs, we have used our natural patient and adaptive tendencies to make them work for us or we have worked around their shortfalls. Now that is beginning to change and we are seeing more Thai start-ups innovating solutions for the local market.As Thailand's medical device market continues to grow there will be great potential for local companies and innovators to develop products to meet demand in many areas including those related to surgical procedure equipment, implanted medical devices, respiratory devices and oxygen therapy, orthopaedic implant devices, heart valves, neurosurgical devices, rehabilitation equipment and accessories, and dermatological devices.One of the challenges we face at this stage is that the innovators/developers are often working at a distance from the healthcare environment without direct input from healthcare professionals. That can lead to the true needs of patients or healthcare professionals not really being met. We need more collaboration between healthcare professionals and the innovators, and the IT and engineering professionals trying to develop solutions. At the beginning of the process we need the healthcare professionals to identify an unmet need and then we need them to be giving feedback to the development team throughout the process.Another challenge is that coaches and mentors for medical industry startups are difficult to find as the industry is still young in Thailand. Again, collaboration could be the answer. If entrepreneurs with start-up experience in other tech sectors, healthcare professionals, young MedTech innovators, established industry players, and the government sector can work together, we can build the necessary ecosystem to support MedTech startups.2. Why is it important to innovate for the life sciences and medical/ health industry?Innovation is important for the life sciences and medical/health industry because the current healthcare model is unsustainable. The traditional healthcare system has focused on treating people in hospital and then sending them home and the innovation has focused on looking for new treatments. But waiting for people to become acutely ill and then treating them is very expensive, and as our population grows older, that approach will become more and more unsustainable. Thailand is currently moving from an ageing society towards an aged society. By 2032, the proportion of ageing population is expected to reach 32.2 per cent of the population (from 16.5 per cent in 2016). Along with the reduced fertility rate, this will not only impact the country's healthcare system but also its economic productivity. To cope with the impact of our ageing society, innovation in the life sciences and medical/health needs to focus more on promoting wellness and a healthier lifestyle. It needs to be looking for preventative treatments, earlier detection of disease and earlier interventions to treat or manage the disease before it becomes serious and requires hospitalisation.3. What are the main challenges in innovating for the life sciences and medical/ health industry in Thailand?We do not really have a co-working space specifically designed for life sciences and medical/health innovation. Developers and clinicians are not just figuratively working in their own silos and not talking and sharing ideas, they are actually physically separated from the clinicians and healthcare professionals. The innovators are working in offices over here, the engineers are in an industrial park over there and the clinicians and healthcare professionals are in a hospital somewhere else; they are not all part of the same ecosystem. So their true requirements are not really being met because they are not talking to, and working with, the innovators and developers.4.How can these challenges be overcome?We need to have co-working spaces that are especially designed for healthcare innovation. The co-working space should facilitate the development of the sort of ecosystem needed for medical industry innovation, with good coaching and mentoring systems from the clinical and industry sides. There should be start-up incubation spaces and engineering facilities on the campuses of the big research hospitals and collaboration and communication should be encouraged and facilitated.5. What are the main challenges in founding and sustaining a life sciences and medical/ health startups in Thailand?We do not have good coaches and mentors with experience in the medical business. Most of the start-up incubators do not really work with or have experience in medical industry. Start-ups have to find their own ways or share resources, including investor resources, with start-ups in other industries. We also need investors who understand the challenges faced by life sciences and medical/ health startups. General investors are interested in the healthcare industry but they are used to faster development times and seeing quicker returns on their investments in other industry sectors. So when they see the challenges faced by the life sciences and medical/health sectors such as the longer time needed for development and clinical trials, stricter standards and more restrictive marketing regulations, they usually give up.6. How can these challenges be overcome?We need incubators who are experienced in life sciences and medical/health industry. Longer term support is also needed in the life sciences and medical/health industry; accelerators should work not just at the level of incubating the business but also in the various stages of development.Additionally, because investing in the healthcare industry costs more and takes longer to see returns compared to other industries, healthcare startups need opportunities to meet with investors who are familiar with the life sciences and medical/health industry and understand the challenges and time frames involved.7. What can be done to make innovation a stronger priority for the life sciences and medical/health industry in Thailand?The government, industry players, innovators all need to realise that life sciences and medical/ health innovation promotes sustainable wellness and wellbeing. It is this technology that directly helps us live healthier and better lives. An ecosystem suitable for life sciences and medical/health innovation should be created to help accelerate the innovations that will keep Thais living longer, healthier, happier, and economically more sustainable lives.Can Thailand become a MedTech Innovator instead of a MedTech customer?.
GearBest Laser Engraver DIY Kit Assembly Instructions
I have always asserted that the assembly kits for 3D printers, laser engravers/cutters and mill machines nothing have to envy to more expansive devices - based on the same principles and technologies - sold assembled and probably with a more curated design but not so easy to control and manage.I also argue that a good assembly of these kits is a key factor for their reliability when ready for working. This is the reason that I started writing this tutorial guide.I have used the GearBest laser engraver/cutter after its assembly doing many tests on different kind of materials (including 3D printed PLA parts) with very good results. The images of this tutorial refers to the 2500 mA laser but the same instructions can be applied to all the models of the same series as all are based on the same architecture mounting different power laser heads.Thanks to GearBest, just a nice surprise for the users. With this coupon code IJCDDA you can get 20% discount from your laser engraver purchase! Hope this makes you happy.The kit (first image) includes all the components that you need to start assembly, including the allen keys. To makes things easy I suggest to add to the included tools also a plier before starting the assembly job.The box contentIn the kit box you find three stepper motors, the cables to connect the motors to the controller and a USB cable to connect the Arduino Nano to the computer, the controller board including the Arduino and the profiled Aluminium components to build the main structure.Together with the bare components it is appreciable a small gift bag including protective glasses, a series of small test materials and a couple of high intensity LED lights that can be used with an external USB power connector.Ready to start assembling? Go ahead!The main frame (the base of the engraver) is very easy to assemble but you should remember to insert the M4 nuts inside the profiled Aluminium longer sides.To complete this step you will use: the two longest Aluminium profiled parts (the long side of the main frame), 8 M4 nuts, the acrylic front and rear side of the main frame.IMPORTANT!Insert four M4 nuts in every side rail of the two longer supports (the side face to the internal of the frame structure): two on the top side rail and one on the top rail. These nuts will be used in next steps to add the side supports to the main frame and to lock the teeth belt for the Y-axis.You will use a total of eight M4 nuts.If you forget this simple step you are obliged to disassemble the frame later.The first image shows what you should get at the end of this step. To assemble the main frame you will use the longer profiled Aluminium parts and the front and rear acrylic components (shown in third image)The next images shows how the nuts appear after the assembly and how to lock the Aluminium supports to the acrylic parts.The Aluminium profiled support (longer sides) should be positioned vertically and locked to the acrylic sides with two M4 Allen screws on every side.Done? Move ahead to the next stepThe short Aluminium profiled supports are aligned to the top of the longer side supports and are in direct contact with the front and rear acrylic sides, contributing to give robustness and stability to the frame. As we see further in this way the main frame has a border available to place a flat base on which we will position out pieces to cut or engrave.To complete this step you will use: two short square Aluminium profiled pieces, four corner locking blocks, eight M4 10mm Allen screws and other four M4 nuts.At this point it is important to position correctly the short Aluminium supports creating a flat frame: this is the border where we can place our working plate for engraving.Align the supports exactly to the same level of the other two in the frame and push them in contact with the internal side of the front and rear end of the acrylic parts. Then lock firmly every screw to make the Aluminium rectangular frame solid.The main frame now is complete, we can proceed. Go ahead!In this step we will assemble the two stepper motors that control the Y-axis.To complete this step you will use: two stepper motors, two acrylic Y-axis supports, two teeth pulley and eight M3 allen screws.Read before startingWell, keeping in mind the mentioned precautions screw the two stepper motors to the acrylic side supports mirrored as shown in the images. Then put the pulleys in place and double check that all is correct.Done? Get ready for the next step!This is the first step where we start mounting moving parts together.To complete this step you will use: the two Y-axes motor group , four M3 Allen screws and nuts, four washers, four plastic separators, four bearings.This operation is almost easy: the only thing you should take in account is the right order of the parts you should fit in the Allen screw before locking to the opposite side of the acrylic motor support holes.The first image shows the mounted bearings with the block oriented in the right position.The second image shows the parts that are used to assemble a bearingThe third image shows a bearing assembled correctly.It's question of minutes, then go next!This is the first step where we start mounting pre-assembled parts together.In this step you will use: the pre-assembled main frame, the pre-assembled two Y-axis motor block, other four set of components to mount four bearings.There is an almost easy way to assemble these parts; prepare the four bearings ready to be inserted as shown in the first image.Take in one hand one of the motor groups and position it with the bottom bearings (already mounted) in correspondence to the bottom rail of the longer side of the main frame as shown in the second image.Insert the bearing and support with the Allen screw in the top rail of the as shown in the third image; add to the opposite side of the hole the washer and just insert the nut turning it a couple of times. If you lock it becomes very difficult to insert the second upper bearing.When both the upper bearings are positioned firmly lock the nuts: the motor group should be stable and move smoothly along the longer side of the main frame rails.Repeat the same operation for the other motor group.One important step is done. Ready for the next step?The stepper motor moves the Y axis using a teeth belt that we will assemble in this step. Following the right sequence the operation is easy granting good performances.To complete this step you will use: The teeth belt, fours M3 allen screws and nuts, four M4 10 mm Allen screws, four acrylic belt lock parts.The belt will be fixed to the motor in two phases: first on side then the opposite side correctly tensioning the belt.Phase 1: fixing the belt to one sidePrepare the four acrylic belt locks as shown in the first two images: insert the M3 (smaller) Allen screw in the smaller hole and the nut in the other side. Close it with hands without blocking.Slide one of the two M4 nuts that you have inserted in the frame in the step Assemble the main frame to one of the extreme sides of the rail.Insert one of the sides of the teeth belt without cutting it exactly as shown in the third and fourth image.It is important that you leave a couple of centimetres of the belt outside (see the images). This will be very useful in future if you need to adjust the belt tension or to replace the belt.After closing firmly the M4 Allen screw do the same with the other screw to fix the side of the belt. At the end of this operation you will see that it is impossible to remove the belt.Phase 2: fixing the belt to the opposite side and tensioningNow that the teeth belt is firmly fixed to the first side, insert it in the rail and dispose on the motor teeth pulley as shown in the fifth image. Don't care to tension the belt now.Apply the same method explained above to fixe the belt to the other side. Don't cut yet the belt now!Before locking the M3 screw (when the belt is not completely fixed) you can now tension the belt. Use the sixth image as a guide to see the result you should obtain. If correctly tensioned the belt should remain flexible (/- 5mm) to avoid usage damage.The last operation you should do, is to adjust the motor pulleyExtract the pulley from the shaft until you see that the belt is almost in the middle. Then lock both the two screws of the pulley. Apply the same operations to the other side motorNow test again that the belts are correctly tensioned: every motor group should slide smoothly along the main frame rail without opposing too resistance.And now another step: assembling the X axis!The Y.axis moves along the longer side of the frame using two stepper motors synchronised. Now we should assemble the top Aluminium profiled support that holds the X-axis and laser head group and keep the two sides Y-axis motors perfectly aligned.To complete this step you will use: Four M4 Allen screws, the (last) Aluminium profiled support for the X-axis, two M4 nuts.IMPORTANT!Insert two M4 nuts in the bottom side rail of the support: these nuts will be used for the belt lockers.Align the two Y-axis motor groups and insert the four M4 Allen screws through the acrylic holes in the support.Insert all the four screws by hand then complete the operation with the Allen key and lock them firmly. The three images illustrates the correct position of the Aluminium profiled support.Done this simple step? Great! We can proceed with something more complex.The assembly instructions for the X-axis stepper motor is the same as explained in Step 4: Assembling the Y-axis stepper motor.To complete this step you will use: one stepper motors, the motor side acrylic X-axis support, one teeth pulley and four M3 allen screws.The X-axis group has two different acrylic components: the front support that will host the laser head and the rear support where we should assemble the stepper motor.As shown in the image the stepper motor connector should be oriented to the top side of the support. This will make easy the wiring of the motor cable.Already done? Not so easy, but it 's only the first part. Go ahead!This is an almost delicate part but fortunately it is not particularly complex: you have already learned most of the assembly methods you should apply to this part.To complete this step you will use: the partially assembled machine, the partially assembled C-axis group, four M3 Allen screws and nuts, eight bearing separators, four bearings, the second acrylic X-axis support and the remaining part of the teeth belt.Read before startingNote that the X-axis motor and laser head group should be mounted with the motor oriented to the back side and the laser head oriented to the front side.Mount the two top bearingsInsert the two top bearings in the motor group using one plastic separator per side. Refer to the suggestions explained in the Steps 5 and 6 for the bearing assembly and close them firmly. See the first image for the correct insertion; the second image shows how to put the assembled group in place.Mount the two bottom bearingsFor this second operation you can't pre-assemble the bearings. For every bearing insert the Allen screw in the first side hole of the acrylic support. Then add the three components of the bearing keeping them in place continuing to insert the screw. When both the bottom bearings are correctly positioned you can close the two Allen screws with the washer and the nuts.Mount the teeth beltNow the entire structure is assembled and it is almost robust that you can orient it to the most comfortable position to assemble the teeth belt. Follow the instructions described in the Step 7 Ready? Hurry hoop, next step is waiting!The laser head should be inserted to the opposite site of the motor and does not need to be screwed to the support: it simply inserts in the holes.To complete this step you will use: the laser head and the almost finished laser cutter. To insert the laser head in the X-axis group the three screws shown in the first image should be regulated to insert and keep firmly in place the head inside the three holes in the front side of the support as shown in the second image.Before inserting the heat you should regulate by hand the three screws as shown in the third image, using any other acrylic border to align the screws depth.After inserting the laser head insert the wire in the square hole on top of the X-axis group.Almost finished, few more steps are waiting!The controller board installation is the last component that should be added to the machine.To complete this start you will use: eight M3 Allen screws, four separators, four hexagonal supports, the controller board, the control buttons and the acrylic protective cover of the controller board.Insert in the four holes of the back acrylic support four M3 Allen screws and four separators on the other side.Keeping the four screws in position insert the controller board as shown in the second image.Then lock the back screws with the four hexagonal supports as shown in the third image.Prepare the two buttons covers and the acrylic controller board protection (see the fourth image) and position in front of the controller board.Insert by hand the remaining four screws to keep in position the protective plate, then rotate slowly the buttons protection until they fit inside the button switches on the controller board.Close firmly the four screws to complete the board installation.We're almost finised !The last operation before powering on the laser engraver is wiring the cables.To complete this step and finish the assembly of the machine you will use: two motor cables, USB cable, the power supply.The first two images shows how to position the cables connectors. From left to right respectively:With compliments!You have completed the laser cutter assembled. Now you can test and enjoy with your new tool.Note: As there are many software applications that can fit the requirements to control the Arduino Nano based laser cutter from GearBest, we will explore in a dedicated instructable the possibilities offered by the open source software to get the best results from this machine.
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